Mysticism, Commonwealth Cultural Foundation of Iran and Indonesia



 Dr. Mohammad Ali Rabbani[1]


Abstract :

The role of the factor of Sufism and mysticism in the Islamicization process in southeast Asia is very important, and solid evidence of non-denial also implies this role. Islam entered South-Eastern Asia at a time when Hinduism and Buddhism dominated widespread parts of the region, and the Muslim Brotherhood, with the understanding of the commonalities that exist between the semantics of Islamic Sufism and Hinduism, made it easy to communicate and introduce Islam as well. The Sufis, along with merchant ships who traveled to the lands of Southeast Asia were able to play a major role in the civilization of this region. An important point in the importance of understanding the role of the Sofia stream in the Malay culture is that of the major works of Sufism that this region has remained Persian.


Keywords: mysticism, Islam, Indonesia, culture, literature, Iran



The contribution of mysticism factor to the Islamicization of the Malay Archipelago

The Sufism debate is associated with the issue of the Islam propagation in the land of Malay or the archipelago of Indonesia, and the hypothesis of the role of Sufism and the role of Islam in the advent of Islam in Southeast Asia, particularly in Indonesia, is a popular theory. Some scholars insist that Sufi Sheikhs from the countries of India, Yemen and Iran entered the area and played a major role in turning the people of this region to Islam. (Azra, 2004, pp. 100-103)

One of the main reasons for the orientation of the people of Southeast Asia to Islam was the Sufis’ particular way of presenting Islam, as well as the similarities in the internalism and the mystical aspects of Hinduism and Buddhism with Sufism. Sufism made it easier for the people of this region to accept Islam more than any other factor because it responded very well to their spiritual and unworldly tendencies, which were basically inclined toward spiritual affairs. In addition, the Sufis approach to Islam was so invisible to the Malay that they did not want to immediately abandon their existing religious beliefs and Buddhist Hinduism, but instead tried to reinterpret these beliefs in the religious and spiritual teachings of Islam. Sufism propagandists rather than seeking to change the religious attitudes of the people, tried to correct them and use similarities in the way of attracting people. Muslims in this area tended to have a philosophical-mystical beliefs.

The interest in Sufism in the Indonesian archipelago was not merely attributed to the masses of the people, but the Malay rulers were also fascinated by the mystical concepts, especially the perfect man theory, as they gave them the opportunity to introduce themselves as Vali Allah (guardian of people), a pole, or a perfect man.

The important point is that the expansion of mystical concepts in the Malay culture has been influenced by the mystical literature of Iran and Shi’ism. Hassan Ibn Mansur Hallaj, the prominent Iranian Sufi has greatly influenced the culture of Malay mysticism. In Java a mystic called “Sheikh Siti Jenar” known as Hallaj Jave, claimed his righteousness (An Al-hagh) plead by the Halaj method and was hanged by the Ummah’s fatwa (Zafaraghbal, 1384, p. 72). During the period of the Padang monarchy in Central Java, the Shi’i Faith was propagated through the theory of “Noor Muhammad” and the “unity of existence” theory. “Hamza Fansuri” is a distinguished manifescio of Malay sufism in the sixteenth century most of whose works are full of Iranian sufism and Shi’ism culture (Marcinkowski, 2004).

In Achae, the mystical thoughts of Hamza Fansuri and his apprentice Sumateryan Shahrud Shamsuddin were supported by the ruler of Achaeus, Sultan Iskandar Muda. His fellow apprentice, Shamsuddin Sumateri, wrote a great deal in Malay language, which were mainly influenced by Shiite and Iranian thoughts. Works of Sumateryan Shamsuddin such as “Sharab al-Asheqin”, “Asrar al-Arifin Fi Bayan Elm al-Saluk and al-Wahid”; and quatrains (Rubaiyat) like “Rubai al-Muhaqeqin”; “Kashf al-Asrar al-Tajli al-Sobāhānī”; “Al-Mentha” in the narrative of the prophetic hadith; “Miftah al-Asrar”; “Miras al-Momenin”, “Miras al-Mohaqeqin” and “Javaher al-Haqayeq” are the main sources of literary and mystical heritage in Malaysia and Indonesia (Nasir, 2004, pp. 75-99).

Professor Najib al-Atas, who has extensive studies on the works of Hamza Fansuri, concludes with reference to the poems that his parents are from Barus, but his hometown of spiritual and mystical identity is the city of the Navy, the city where he became familiar with Sufism in Iran in the 16th century (Al-Attas S. M., 1979). Another important note is the impression he got from Persian mystical literature. He has direct access to sources of Persian and secular mystic literature due to familiarity with Persian language. In his works, he has abundantly used the words and poems of the great mystics and the great Persian and Shi’ite poets (Marcinkowski, 2004, p. 26).

The Malay sultans also, by adapting the idea of the light of Muhammad and the perfect man tried to attract the beliefs of the people and see themselves in the presence of the pole. Most of the Java Sultans, such as Sultan Padang and Sultan Mataram regarded themselves as the symbol of the light of Muhammad and the perfect man (R.O.Winstedt, 1958, p. 112). Another famous Sufi of this period Abdul Samad Al-Polambani (1112 AH / 1700 AD) was born in Palembanang, Sumatra. Like Hamza Fensuri, he was heir of a Yemeni tribe and descendants of Imam Ja’far Sadegh. He translated Ehya al-A’lum, Mashka Al-Anwar, Hedayat Al-Salakin and Bedaya al-Hadayeh by Imam Ghazali, al-Rasala al-Qashiria by Abolqasem al-Qashiri, Al-Ansal al-Kumel by Abdul-Karim al-Jeli, al-Tahaf al-Mursaleh by Fazlullah Barhan Puri and some other renown titles of famous figures to Malay language, and he also wrote eight books on conduct and bearing (ROWinstedt, 1958, p. 112). Another distinguished figure in Malay culture and literature, Noor al-Din al-Raniri, despite the fact that Shāfīī was against the Hamza’s philosophy and the theory of unity, and called his father and his followers an apostasy, and, on the contrary, presented the theory of the unity of his intuition as a religious truth; But in mystical and verbal orientations, he was influenced by Shia and Iranian mystics. He, like Hamza Fensori, was heir of Yemeni tribe and from the generation of Ahmad Mohajer, the descendants of Imam Ja’far Sadegh. He also dominated Persian language. He benefited much from the works of Ibn Arabi, Sadr al-Din Qunavi, Abdul Razzak Kashani, Abdolkarim Jali, Abdul Rahman Jami, and Ketab al-Anvar Ardabili. Ranairi’s book, “Tebyan Fi Maarafa al-Adyan” is derived from the “Melal va Nahl” of Shahrastānī (Ito, 1976, pp. 489-491).

The influence of Hamza Fensuri’s Sufism on the Islamization of the Butan Sultans in southern Sulawsih in 948 AH is of great importance. The other mystic of Jave “Ki Ageng Pangking” also reflected Ismaili’s thoughts. The light of Muhammad theory is also influenced by the Shia’s views. In Shiite mysticism, the notion that God first created the light of Muhammad is the symbol of the emergence of the essence of the truth, which is reflected in the essence of the last messenger, Muhammad, and twelve Imams namely Ali and his offsprings. Thus, among the mystics of Jave, the advent of Imam Mahdi is known as Ratu Adil, or the Just King. The people of Jave believe that the light of Muhammad has emerged in the presence of the pole (Zofaraghbal, 1384, p. 88).


Iranian cultural and religious influence on Malay culture

The Islamicization process in the Indonesian archipelago has generally been formed in a historical and evolutionary process, and this evolutionary process, partly based on the indigenization of Islamic doctrines and the adaptation of pre-Islamic beliefs to Islam, has succeeded in establishing a common Islamic identity among the inhabitants of the archipelago of Indonesia. Meanwhile, the domesticization and internalisation of Islamic values in the Indonesian community, which is sometimes influenced by a variety of geographical and cultural factors, has often emphasized the spiritual, ethical, and spiritual aspects of Islam and is affected by various elements of culture and traditions of other nations.

However, today, most Muslims in the archipelago of Indonesia are Sunni and are followers of Shafi’i jurisprudential religion; but a closer examination of the combined nature of the Islamic culture in this country and the resolution of the historical course in the arrival and expansion of Islam in this region indicates that there existed a close contact and communication between the inhabitants of the archipelago of Indonesia and the culture and works of other nations, including Iran, which was achieved mainly through the gates of India, or the missionaries and the Iranian and Arab merchants (Fretage.Ulrike, 2003). Islam came to the Algerian archipelago at the time when the inhabitants of this area followed Hindu and Buddhist beliefs. These religious traditions, combined with the indigenous beliefs that Indonesian society adhered to before embarking on Hindu-Buddhism, has created a diverse forms of acculturation (Robert, 1993). This confirms the hypothesis that the inhabitants of the archipelago of Indonesia, especially Jave, have always had an open attitude and flexibility toward influencing other values ​​and cultures. This Indonesian open cultural approach made the efforts of the primary propagandists fruitful in Islamizing and propagating Islam by ease and success, and used culture as a means of instilling Islamic values ​​in public life. Participation of Iranian and immigrant Arabs in the Islamic leagues of Salatin provided another suitable ground for the introduction and promotion of other religious and cultural values ​​of the nations in the culture of Malay. This influence has emerged in the form of religious traditions, social beliefs, sufism, mysticism, literature, philosophy, science, art, and other manifestations of civilization (Yusu, 2004, pp. 74-79).

Another important point is the role of the Sufis in promoting and advertising Islam in this region. The first Islamic propagandist in Jave, Mulana Malek Ibrahim Kashani, who was also called ‘al-Mugribi and Gujarati’, was one of Sadat and the descendants of Imam Zain al-Abedin who came from Kashan and then moved from Gujarat of India to Indonesia. He died in 882 AH in the Grisik region of Surabaya, and his mausoleum is now a shrine (Sunyoto, 2012, pp. 51-55). But the Sungo or the Nine Jave tribesmen, the first and foremost Muslim propagandist on the island were Muslim Sufis who spoke to the successors of Islam among the inhabitants of the Jave island through mystical teachings. Seven of these great men were from Sadat and two of them were Iranian (Sunyoto, 2012, pp. 122-189).

Taking into account the works of the “Perlak” kingdom and the manuscripts titled “Tazkra Tabaghat Jame al-Sultan al-Salatin”, which was collected by “Shams al-Bahri Abdullah al-Aṣhi” and rewritten by Abdullah Ibn Said Habib Saifuddin in 1275 AH, the impact of Iranian culturein Ache on the Indonesian Sumatera island during the 16th and 17th centuries can be studied from the socio-historical and socio-anthropological point of view. The period of the rise and influence of Iran on the Islamic Achaech kingdom is known as part of the process of Islamic thought expansion and is considered to be largely in line with the Shiite empire of the Safavid religion in Iran. In addition to the political system of the Achaecian sultans, Malay culture, art and literature have also been influenced by Iranian culture, and most of the narrations in the Achaean literature are derived from Persian literature (Zafra Zaghbal, 2005, pp. 29-30).

Persian culture is seen as a cultural heritage among the people of Sumatra. Since then, Persian culture was administered in all parts of the region and adherence to this culture has continued so far. This was the reason local researchers believed that Persian culture is an integral part of the culture of the people of Aceh (Baroroh, 1976). But it should be noted that the people of Ache consider imported cultures in the sense of the tradition of their own called UnDatuo. In the past, they used UnDatuo to refer to the groups and people who came to Ache from abroad for business. The people of Ache did not pay much attention to their religious backgrounds, but accepted and respected what they left as their customs merged in their culture. However, in religious teachings, the people of Achaea only follow Shafi’i, and Ghazali and Ash’arite in their words (zafa, 1997).

In addition, researchers who have studied the relationship between the Persian and Samudra Pasai have come up with findings in Persian language with words like Ali Ibn Abi Talib. Findings are the same as those written on the tomb of Sultan “Malik al-Saleh”, one of the most powerful sultans of Ache, who has mentioned the name of Ali ibn Abi Talib as the one who was Rasheed’s caliph. Also, the epithet  “Sultan Adel”, whose name was carved on gold coins in Nusantara as the oldest money in Sultan Mohammad Malek al-Zahir’s time, is only taken from the book “Taj al-Salatin”. The translator of this book is Bukhari El-Joohri. He lived in 1603 in line with the era of the kingdom of Ache Dar al-Salaam.

In fact, the discussion of the “right sultan” has been used in the context of the ruler and the concept of Valy and Imam. One of the most basic tasks of the Sultan is to carry out the Islamic ideology on the basis of the law through the affair of good and forbidding evil in the Muslim community. In Ache, this title was used not only during the Samudra Pasai period, but also from the time of the Sultan Ali, the Shah (1530-1514), until the time of the Sultan Re’ayat Shah (1604-1589) (Sachedina, 1988, pp. 18-19).

Among the current traditions in the Sunni community of Indonesia is the prayer for the Prophet and Ahl-e Bayt, which is yet common among the Sunni communities. Among the literary works that serve as the source of prayer for the Prophet  used by Indonesian Muslims, especially on the island of Jave, to be the “Propeller of Prophecy”, which, along with other exhortation books, such as “Ratat al-Haddad” and “Prayer of Kamil,” contain the teachings of the Ahl-e Bayt. The tradition of reading these books, in particular the Movaled al-Barzanji, has become an important ritual, especially for religious scholars in many areas including in Jave. Even in some areas, such as Melange, Novogotyurto, Salman, Jugla, and the Middle Jave, Barzanji is almost entirely valid after the Holy Qur’an (Kamaruzzaman Bustamam, 2012, p. 4). The reading of poems is not devoted to the Rabbi’s month, and in many later religions, the same religious domain, this book is read on friday nights. The poems of this book, while praising the majesty of the Prophet Muhammad also give praise to his Ahl-e Bayt. In this text, it is noted that the lineage of the Ahl al-Bayt of ours is directed to Ali Morteza and to the two descendants of the Prophet who are pure and pious from the original and relative. Many of the Imams are born of the descendants, and from them, They were known from the very far of the era with such qualities as Ali Zain al-Abedin and his son, with the best servants of God. Also, the Imam (Ja’far) is honest, truthful and conscientious of the people, and Ali (Reza) with virtue. They are those who Divine guidance is theirs and they are among the grace (Wieringa, 1996, p. 4).

In the poems of Brasanji which are read both in Indonesian and Arabic texts, the words of praise on the Prophet and his Ahl-e Bayt (Alw, 1998) have been clearly spoken by many Muslims from the past century. The Indonesian tradition is pursued as a cultural and religious tradition. The ritual ceremony of Muharram in Indonesia is considered to be another influence of cultural patriarchy in Indonesian cultural traditions. With the entry of Islam into Indonesia, part of which passed the gates of India, some of the traditions and customs of the month of Muharram were common among the people of this land. The ceremony affects the Sunnis, and today, on the islands of Sumatra, Jave, and Melako, a large number of the Sunnis hold these traditions as “Coffin Festival” each year.


The Impact of Shiite Literature on Malay Literature

The Office of Manuscripts “Fawn Ronkell” refers to twenty Shiite stories in the literature of Malay (Zofaraghbar, 1384, pp. 248-254). In these tales concerning the Prophet, Imam Ali, his wife Fatima and his followers, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein, have had a great influence in the 18th and 17th century on Sufism of Malay. Light Strength of Muhammad; the perfect man’s theory is reflected in the Sufism of Hallaj which is rooted back to Persian literature. There is a version of this work in the Indonesian National Museum by Ahmad Shamsuddin Banjeri and under the direction of “Taj al-Alam Safiyeddin Shah” 1668 AD) in Malay by the Persian text of “Rowada al-Ahbab”; written by Ataullah ibn Fazlullah Jamal al-Husseini Shirazi, dying in 1520, attributed to Mir Ali Shir-Noahi whose Persian text The original text of Al-Nasab has been translated into Malayalam (Zafaraghbal, 1384).

This implies the influence of the Persian and Iranian people on the Achaean court, which were considered as powerful Islamic powers in the region. The significance of the story of the light of Muhammad is its effect on the unity of the existence of the Sufis and the Malay people. It is in this Malay story that God created a bright bird off the Prophet’s existence the head of which was Imam Ali and Hassan and Hussein formed the two eyes. The bird was bestowed with the light of the seven seas of science, that are, forgiveness, patience, reason, deception, mercy and light of the kingdom. In the story of Shāq al-Qumr, the influence of Shiite religion is evident. This statement was mentioned in the ethics and identity of Hazrat Ali in the second half of the 16th century or in the early 17th century (R.O.Winstedt, p. 102).

The story of the death of the Prophet is the Shi’i interpretation of the Prophet’s death and the role of Imam Ali at the last moments of prophet’s life. The storty of Raja Khandagh expresses the courage of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the ditch warfare. Ali is an extraordinary brave man called God’s Lion. This book was returned to the Indonesian National Library in Jakarta as well as to the local language “Sulawesi” of the Swandah Valley of the Western Jave (Zafaraghbal, 2005, p. 263). The story of Raja Khaybar in the Indonesian National Library, which deals with the killing of Khaybar, is based on Salman Farsi’s claims. The marriage is based on the teachings of Ali Abdollah Abdollah Fatimah, The story of the Prophet of the Holy Prophet on the gift of the prophet to Fatima and his charity to the poor by Hazrat Fatemeh. The story of Fatimah’s conversation with Zolt’qar ‘Ali narrates the story of poverty. Ali et al. The story of Ibrahim Adham, the story of Hassan and Hussein (coffin), which is very famous in the Malay literature. And in the ceremony of Muharram, the sarcophagus is called “Benkoglu” and “Pari Aman” each year (Djamaris, p. 53). The story of Amir Hamza is one of the famous tales in the literature of Malayu which was translated from Persian sources to Malay in 1511; the story of Mohammad Hanafi, translated from Persian. The tales of the king of the men, or the story of “Endraweya”, which dates back to the 17th century in Malayotra, are examples of the influences of culture in the Malay and Indo-Iranian cultures. The Iranian and secular forms of philosophical and mystical Vermuz are through works such as Masnavi, eight paradise, Amir Khosrooodlooy, Divine Letter, and The logic of al-Tayyar Attar, Bahramgur, Gonchavi Military, and Alisher Nawayyi, and Mrs. Khosrodehlouy, have entered the literature of Mullaeu. The work of Hamza Fansuri, such as the Secrets of the Ayurfain and the Wine of the Al-Awsafin; his alms and herbs (early 17th century) are full of influences from the Shiite and Iranian Sufi thoughts Is (Zafra Naghala, 2005, p. 324).


Shiite influence on Malay art

The story of “Manak Amir Hamza” in Jave, though written in manuscripts, is often depicted in the form of the “Wiang” show, which is a puppeteer doll. Through the performing arts, the story of Imam Amir Hamzeh, with the source of Persian literature titled Amir Hamza’s story, full of ideas, ideas and ideas of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), is known and accepted by almost all the Jave people in the regions of coastal and remote, and even was propagated to the “West Noosa Tengara ” island (Zafra Naghala, 2005, p. 324).

The character of Amir Hamza is highly acclaimed by the Indonesian community. The prominent stories of the Java community in the 19th and 20th centuries were at least in the naming of their children, with the names of the characters of this story, especially Amir and Hamza. Meanwhile, the spread of Islamic values ​​through local, intercultural, artistic art Cultural-Islamic art from Iran, India, Champa, China, and Arabs, which took place in the form of Wiang’s art with all sorts of it, happy and humorous programs, songs, poetry, and so on. The influence of Iranian and Indian Islam on the emergence of traditional arts, such as Wiang’s art, with the stories of the devil, the story of Ramayana and the Mahabharata, is an iconography of the great prophet of Islam, as well as the art of magical magic, Salavat reading and music. According to Simweh (1988), in Java influence Shiites are visible in the process of Islamicization through art, such as the dramatic art of the Sandol that shows the battle between Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib and Mu’awiyah.

The coffin ceremony, which coincides with the day of Ashura in Java and Nagorno-Karabakh, will also be held in the form of art exhibitions and festivals. Sandol art has influenced Shi’a Islam. The art of the sandal and the story of the insult, depicting a battle between Bani Umayyah and Ali Ali, Wannibar Hamza ibn Abdulmutallab, against the character of Umayyad. And this is psychologically and spiritually in the structure of the habit of the Muslim communities in the archipelago of Indonesia. They show their outstanding position to Imam Ali (a) and Hamza bin Abdul Motabal. The definitive influence of the religious beliefs of Iranian and Indian Muslims in the advent of traditional arts, including The art of Wiang or the story of the devil, the story of Ramayana and Mahabharata, the epitome of the preacher of Islam, the art of magical magic, salvation and mystical music. (Amir, No. 513; Year 21; August 1986)

What we have mentioned is the effect of Islamic mysticism and its capabilities in providing the possibility of interaction, coexistence and dialogue among nations and followers of the Islamic religions.

Mysticism is a matter of all cultures, not a particular culture. The mysticism of a religion is an encyclopedia or, in other words, a meaningful religion, which is a transhigraphy of history. History is a knowledge and knowledge is the boundary of the world, which forms the universal framework and the Muslim mystic world view without boundaries and interactions. Mentalism and rituals constituted the two main pillars of his worldview, and the mystic, with his intuitive intellect who raised the world and the religions from a single truth, was sympathetic to interact with others. Therefore, the Muslim mystic of Persia and Arabs, who are the first Islamic daemons and mollagans in Southeast Asia, follow the same The basic assumptions of mysticism, namely, the unity of existence, the principle of sentimentality and inclusiveness, sought to transcend the cortical and shell layers and, as a result, reached the essence of the unity of the world. Therefore, instead of fomenting disputes, they sought to The true knowledge of commons, which is essentially the same transcendent truth in all religions, and also invites others to see the inward truths.

By referring human beings to the attributes of the unity of nature, the Lord, they called for unity to the Muslim mystics. This important feature in Islamic mysticism, namely the speciality of tolerance, tolerance, and flexibility versus others, was able to achieve coexistence and convergence among Iranian societies. And Arabs provided people with Southeast Asian lands, especially Indonesia.

In a mystical approach, man is in a position of magnitude, regardless of any tendency. The garrison of self-knowledge began, and in the humanistic view of Islamic mysticism, all human beings are a shareholder of the right and attention of the Prophet. What the Muslim mystic proclaimed was love for absolute perfection and the movement of all beings to perfection and beauty.

Another important point is that ethical orientation is another aspect of Islamic mysticism in this area. The moral rules that Muslim mystics provided to their audience in this area was not merely a collection of a series of social contracts or habits and traditions, but refers to laws that govern human nature.

Another feature of these mystical traditions was the emphasis on interaction and dialogue. Muslim propagandists and scholars of the Muslim made collection of the creatures that they had in conversation with other cultures, religions, and disciples discussed their mystical knowledge, which is a common experience beyond the boundaries of the world, by abandoning themselves from appearance and only reading themselves rightfully. And voiding others, they respected diversity and religious and cultural diversity.

In the eyes of Muslim mystics, Satan and Shi’a are both original and traditional interpretations of Islamic revelation, which was created by divine appreciation within Islam. They conceived of blasphemy and sacrilege within Islam, with some differences in their different interpretations from history, jurisprudence and theology can not break the unity of the end. Therefore, we see the discussions between Sunnis and Shiites, or Muslims and non-Muslims, during the period of the arrival and expansion of Islam by the aristocratic da’yān and Mallahan in Southeast Asia. In this period, we do not see fundamentalism and extremism. However, both gnostics and fundamentalists claim to follow the tradition, but the understanding of these two trends is different from tradition, with the fundamentalists having a religious and monopolistic understanding of the tradition. Only the appearance of the law and the rules of jurisprudence are the same and a set of principles of belief is inexorable. However, the Gurus applies the tradition in its broad sense, which has proceeded from the divine source, and in this regard, regardless of time and place.

Therefore, the tradition connects all the elements of the world and matters of life, art, industry, etc. to this heavenly source, which is at the heart of that religion. It is also considered as one of the other features of the Muslim mystics, with religious dissidents. Tolerance means rational behavior and good-humored behavior with opponents of tolerance among Islamic religions at the first level by recognizing the circle of Islamic religions and the limits of religious brotherhood; many jurisprudents, referring to verses and hadiths, only have two principles of tawhid and prophethood two The main focus has been on the realization of Islam. Which is proved by the Islam of bringing each person as it is expressed in the Qur’an, and the subsequent pursuit of which it should be preserved. As the Imam Shafi’i and others emphasize the reverence of the property and the soul of a person who merely declares Islam, he even says that The hypocrites, who express Islam in fear of killing, have also been considered in full detail.



The Islamic culture of Indonesia, which is based on the plurality and diversity of the world, is a blend of cultural elements of other nations, including Shiie elements and Iranian and Indian culture and civilization. Although more research is needed to be done both historically and anthropologically to determine the extent and degree of the association of Iranian and Shiie culture and civilization with the  Malay and Indonesian culture, but existing evidence in the cultural and religious traditions and customs of the people of this land along with literary sources and written heritage reminds that mystical and moral aspects of Iranian and shiie culture and literature has played a significant role in different aspects of residents of this land and indonesian people still consider persian culture as a part of their own cultural identity and according to historical viewpoint, the Iranian shiie factor has had also a role in the process of Islamization and forming Islamic culture and civilization in South Eastern Asia.

Islamic mysticism has provided the needed base for a profound and sympathetic understanding of other societies and religions. Since the mystic makes an effort to excel from the universe of faces and appearances, and passing through the world of plurality towards unity and also passing from the outward universe towards the inwardness, he passes pluralities in order to reach the actual unit. It’s the reason that the true mystic becomes the repository of monotheism, and the world of objective pluralities turns into unity in Him. All the forms and appearances, including the religious forms, meaning, the rituals and customs are virtual instruments and ladders for the mystic to climb to the actual unity positin and the mystic’s heart is the manifestation of this unity.

Conversatins and coexistence of religions in the light of Islamic mysticism justifies a reasonable justification, because if we do not pay attention to the passage of people from their faces towards inwardness, then followers of any religion will deny anything but their own religious beliefs. Thus, talking about religious tolerance will be fulfilled when the attention to the inwardness and common facts of all religions is paid, but not in different forms, and this concept in the look of Islamic mysticism, which seeks for unity, can be achieved easier in comparison to other areas.This is the semanticism of the message of Islamic mysticism, which is the same message of monotheism of the prophets throughout history, that introduces muslim mystics as people who will achieve individual and social peace and security much more easier and better than ordinary people.

Another result of these discussions is that, firstly,the emergence and growth of religious and cultural conflicts is provided in the context of religious extremism,and any society whose thoughts and culture are formed on the basis of mysticism, especially Islamic mysticism,will have high tolerance capability. And in that society religious compatibility exists more than other societies. Secondly,the growth of religious conflicts and struggles in Islamic societies suggests the spread of the influence area and function of extremists and religious fundamentalists and also the reduction of the mystical and moral tendencies in these societies, or islamic mysticism has distanced from its own principles and rules.Therefore, the Islamic world, which has become the center of international crises and challenges today, needs the intellectual and mystical interpretations of Islam more than ever in order to overcome the inflamed atmosphere which is caused by religious and tribal incompatibilities and conflicts ruled in most Islamic countries.



Al-Attas, Syed Farid, 1999, ‘The Tariqat al-‘Alawiyya and the Emergence of the Shi’i School in Indonesia and Malaysia’, Oriente Moderno.

Azyumardi Azra2013″,THE SHI’IS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA:Towards Closer Rapprochement and Cooperation”.. Historical & Cultural Presence of Shiahs in Southeast Asia:Looking at Future Trajectories,Yogyakarta, university .

– Agus Sunyoto2012.,Atlas Wali Songo,Iman,Jakarta.

– Baried Baroroh 1976,”Shia Elements in malay literature”,in profiles of malay Culture,Ministry of Education  and Education and Culture,Jakarta ,Indonesia,Igba l  .muhammad  zafar  1997, ,introduction  to Iranian Impacr on Indonesian Civilization and literature,Jakarta,Indonesia (u.d)

-Fretage.Ulrike 2003.Indian  Ocean  Migrants and State Formation in Hadhramaut :Reforming the Homeland, .Leiden and Boston Brill.

– M. Ismail Marcinkowski,”Shiite in South-East Asia ,Encyclopadia Iranica(New York NY).  Frode F.Jacobsen,  Hadrami  Arabs  in present-day Indonesia,Routledge contemporary Southeast Asia Series

-Hefner .Robert W.1993″Islam .State.and Civil Society:ICMI  and  the  Struggle for Middle class Indonesia .Husain ,Asna 1998 Philosophical and Sociological Asprcts of Dawah:A Study of Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia.Ann Arbor:UMI.

– Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad,2012,. “History of Shi’ah in Aceh”.Gajamada  University Yogyakarta.

M.Ismail Marcinkowski,”Shiite in South-East Asia ,Encyclopadia Iranica(New York NY).

 Frode F.Jacobsen,  Hadrami  Arabs  in present-day Indonesia,Routledge contemporary Southeast Asia Series.

– Zulkifli, 2009, ‘The Struggle of the Shi’is in Indonesia, Doctoral dissertation, Leiden University

– Hadi Amirul,2004 ,Islam and State in Sumatra:A Study of Seventeenth Century Aceh(Leiden Brill)..Sachedina Abdulaziz Abdul Husein,1988,The Just Ruler (Al-Sultan al-Adil)in Shiite Islam:The Comprehensive Aulthority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence ,Oxford University Press.

– HJ  Muzaffar Dato HJ Mohamad ,2009,Crescent News ,K.L Malaysia..

Frood F.Jacobsen,2009,Hadrami Arabs in Present-day Indonesia,Rutledge,New York.R.B 1957,.Serjeant,The Saiyids of Hadramaut,University of London,Luzac and Co.London.

  –1957,.Serjeant,The Saiyids of Hadramaut,University of London,Luzac and o.London.

Sachedina,Abdulaziz Abdul Husein ,1988,”The Just Ruler(Al-Sultan al-Adil)in Shite Islam:The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence”,Oxford University Press,Oxford .

– Kamaruzzaman Bustamam-Ahmad,2012,. “History of Shi’ah in Aceh”.Gajamada  University Yogyakarta .

– Sayd Muhammad Naguib Al-Attas,1979,The Mysticism Of Hamzah Fansuri. University of Malaysia press,Kuala Lumpur,.

[1]R.O.Winstedt,1958,”A History of Classical Malay Literature”,Jambras No .31.

Henri Cambert-Loir,”Abd al-Samad al-Palembani “op.cit.p.xi

Takeshi Ito,1976,“why did Nuruddin ar-Raniry leave Aceh in 1054 AH”,BKI no 134.

Mohammad Nasir bin Mohamad Nasir,2004,Persian Influences in the Mysticism of Hamzah

Ziarah Rasul Bersama, Hadad Alwi, vol. 2 (Jakarta : Studio 12, 1998), hlm. 22-23.


-شهاب ،محمد اسد ،1381 ه ق ؛”الشیعه فی اندونیسیا “؛مطبعه الغری الحدیثه ،النجف الاشرف صص25-28.

اقبال ،محمد ظفر ،1384 ،تاثیر زبان وادبیات فارسی وفرهنگ ایرانی در زبان وفرهنگ اندونزی ،پایان نامه دکترای دانشکده ادبیات وعلوم انسانی دانشگاه تهران صص 35-38.

-آزیومردی عذرا، “شیعه در اندونزی: بین اسطوره و واقعیت” در علوم قرآن شماره 4، سال 1995، ص 4.ترجمه فارسی رایزنی فرهنگی ج.ا.ا جاکارتا ،1392 .

.-  جلال الدین رحمت، “دوگانگی سنی و شیعه بحث بی ربط است”، گفتگو در علوم قرآن، شماره 4، سال 1995، ص 96-98.

. شهاب محمد ضیاء ،1400 ه ق ،الامام المهاجر ،دارالشروق للنشروالتوزیع والطباعه

 -کتاب مولدالبرزنجی ،لزین العابدین جعفرابن حسن ابن عبدالکریم الحسینی الشهرزوری ،الشهیر بالبرزنجی الشافعی  متوفی سته 1177ه طبع فی القاعره 1283.القول المنجی علی مولدالبرزنجی ،لابی عبدالله محمد ابن احمد بن محمد علیش المالکی المغربی ،مطبعه محمد مصطفی وهبه 1280 القاهر


1- South East Asian Cultural Studies Researcher

This site uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience. By browsing this website, you agree to our use of cookies.